Acute Versus Chronic Invasive Fungal Rhinosinusitis: A Case-Control Study

Authors: Patorn Piromchai and Sanguansak Thanaviratananich

Introduction: Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis is a challenging condition that can be found mostly in immunocompromised patients. Failure to diagnose and treat this entity promptly usually results in rapid progression and death. The purpose of this study was to determine clinical presentation, complication and morbidity in patients with acute versus chronic invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.

Setting and design: Case-control study at Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen University between January 1998 and May 2008.

Methods: The patient’s data with the diagnosis of invasive fungal rhinosinusitis was included. Demographic data, underlying diseases, presenting symptoms, histologic sinonasal tissue evaluations, sinonasal tissue cultures, CT scan findings, surgical interventions, morbidity, and mortality were collected.

Results: Sixty-five patients were diagnosed as invasive fungal rhinosinusitis between January 1998 and May 2008. The data of six patients were unable to obtain. Fifty-nine patients were included in this study. Patients with immunocompromised status have significant greater risk for acute than chronic IFS, OR = 6.5 (P = 0.004). Patients with mucosal necrosis have the significant higher risk for acute IFS, OR = 5.5 (P = 0.01). There was no significant difference in orbital complications proportion between acute and chronic invasive fungal rhinosinusitis, OR = 2.42 (P = 0.15). Sinus wall erosion have found significantly in chronic IFS group, OR = 0.24 (P = 0.02). The average hospital stayed was 30.58 ± 26.43 days with no difference between groups (P = 0.50). Fourteen patients in acute IFS group were dead (31.11%) while all patients in chronic IFS group were survived.

Conclusions: Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis continues to present a challenge to the otolaryngologist. Acute IFS was found most commonly in immunocompromised patients. The most consistent finding of acute IFS was mucosal necrosis and black crust/debris. The CT finding of sinus wall erosion may help in diagnosis of chronic IFS.